Urban Climate Mitigation Techniques
The urban climate is continuously deteriorating. Urban heat lowers the quality of urban life, increases energy needs, and affects the urban socio-economy. Urban Climate Mitigation Techniques presents steps that can be taken to mitigate this situation through a series of innovative technologies and examples of best practices for the improvement of the urban climate.
Including tools for evaluation and a comparative analysis, this book addresses anthropogenic heat, green areas, cool materials and pavements, outdoor shading structures, evaporative cooling and earth cooling. Case studies demonstrate the success and applicability of these measures in various cities throughout the world.
Useful for urban designers, architects and planners, Urban Climate Mitigation Techniques is a step by step tour of the innovative technologies improving our urban climate, providing a holistic approach supported by well-established quantitative examples.
Advances in the Development of Cool Materials for the Built Environment
This e-book is a suitable reference on the technical and scientific competence related to effective application and integration of cool materials in the built environment. The e-book is an overview on the following:
The role of cool materials in the built environment.
- Major cool materials techniques and their benefits and drawbacks.
- Research trends in cool materials for the built environment.
- Technical guidelines for instrumentation, testing and rating of cool materials.
- Policy and economic aspects of cool materials necessary for the management of built environments.
- Case studies where the cool materials are implemented.
These features make this reference e-book a useful guide for civil engineering and environmental management graduates as well as working professionals in the industry including architects, urban planners and environmental inspectors.
Cooling the Cities
The power consumption due to air-conditioning of buildings becomes particularly significant in an urban environment because the temperature of the air of dense urban districts is higher than in the suburbs. This phenomenon, as well as the increase in the standards of living and other factors namely heatwaves, contribute to the growth of the traditionally low demand for artificial air-conditioning in Europe. Case studies make it possible to measure the heat island effect (the accumulation of heat in cities), to characterize the additional electricity consumption of the buildings in an urban environment, and to give an overall picture of the practices, techniques and materials which can help to cool the cities. Priority is given to the practices which avoid the need for artificial air-conditioning by taking into account the environment, the use of vegetation and ” cool ” materials for the construction of pavements and buildings. For the remaining needs for air-conditioning, the present systems of air-conditioning can also become more energy efficient. Case studies conducted in Seville made it possible to measure the dispersion of the needs for air-conditioning around their average value for the various zones of the city. One of the case studies evaluates the benefit associated with the systematic plantation of trees and other plants in Athens. Another case study relates to Paris and estimates the importance of centralized solutions for air-conditioning in an urban environment. This book results from a study launched by the European Commission and is written by authors from three European countries very concerned by heatwaves and their effects downtown : Greece (Athens), Spain (Seville) and France (Paris). All of them are professors or researchers in very high level laboratories (Group Building Environmental Studies in Athens University, Energy Laboratory in Ecole des Mines de Paris and in Seville University).
Natural Ventilation in Buildings
The benefits – environmental, economic and health – of ventilating buildings naturally, rather than mechanically, are becoming increasingly recognized. Approaches can be high- or low-tech but need to be a part of an integrated design approach. A range of technical barriers, such as building codes, fire regulations and acoustics, also need to be taken into account. This handbook describes the potential of natural ventilation, its appropriate use, the design and dimensioning methodologies, the need for an integrated design approach, and how to overcome barriers.
Solar Thermal Technologies for Buildings
Solar thermal is now a proven technology in terms of reliability, cost-benefit, and low environmental impact. The integration of solar thermal systems and installations into the design of buildings can provide a clean, efficient and sustainable low-energy solution for heating and cooling, whilst, taken in a wider context, contributing to climate protection. This book covers the state of the art in the application of solar thermal technologies for buildings. This is the first book in the BEST (Buildings, Energy and Solar Technology) Series. This series presents high-quality theoretical and application-oriented material on solar energy and energy-efficient technologies. Leading international experts cover the strategies and technologies that form the basis of high-performance, sustainable buildings, crucial to enhancing our built and urban environment.
Environmental Design of Urban Buildings
The importance of an integrated approach in urban design is becoming increasingly apparent. This book explains how to overcome related challenges in environmental design of urban buildings and offers guidance on the use of new materials and techniques and the integration of new philosophies. Supported by the EC’s SAVE 13 programme, Environmental Design of Urban Buildings includes contributions from experts at the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece, the Hellenic Open University, Greece, Cambridge Architectural Research, UK and REHVA/University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. A free CD-ROM containing multi-media software tools and climatic data accompanies the book. CONTENTS Environmental Urban Design * Architectural Design, Passive Environmental and Building Engineering Systems * Environmental Issues of Building Design * Sustainable Design, Construction and Operation * Intelligent Controls and Advanced Building Management Systems * Urban Building Climatology * Heat and Mass Transfer Phenomena in Urban Buildings * Applied Lighting Technologies for Urban Buildings * Case Studies * Guidelines to Integrate Energy Conservation * Indoor Air Quality * Applied Energy and Resources Management in the Urban Environment * Economic Methodologies * Integrated Building Design * Bibliography, Index Published with SAVE
Energy Performance of Residential Buildings
Energy Rating is a crucial consideration in modern building design, affirmed by the new EC Directive on the energy performance of buildings. Energy represents a high percentage of the running costs of a building, and has a significant impact on the comfort of the occupants. This book represents detailed information on energy rating of residential buildings, covering: * Theoretical and experimental energy rating techniques: reviewing the state of the art and offering guidance on the in situ identification of the UA and gA values of buildings. * New experimental protocols to evaluate energy performance: detailing a flexible new approach based on actual energy consumption. Data are collected using the Billed Energy Protocol (BEP) and Monitored Energy Protocol (MEP) * Energy Normalization techniques: describing established methods plus a new Climate Severity Index, which offers significant benefits to the user. Also included in this book are audit forms and a CD-ROM for applying the new rating methodology. The software, prepared in Excel, is easy to use, can be widely applied using both deterministic and experimental methods, and can be adapted to national peculiarities and energy policy criteria. Energy Performance of Residential Buildings offers full and clear treatment of the key issues and will be an invaluable source of information for energy experts, building engineers, architects, physicists, project managers and local authorities. The book stems from the EC-funded SAVE project entitled EUROCLASS. Participating institutes included: * University of Athens, Greece * Belgium Building Research Institute, Belgium * University of Seville, Spain * Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
Both the number and percentage of people living in urban areas is growing rapidly. Up to half of the world’s population is expected to be living in a city by the end of the century and there are over 170 cities in the world with populations over a million. Cities have a huge impact on the local climate and require vast quantities of energy to keep them functioning. The urban environment in turn has a big impact on the performance and needs of buildings. The size, scale and mechanism of these interactions is poorly understood and strategies to mitigate them are rarely implemented. This is the first comprehensive book to address these questions. It arises out of a programme of work (POLISTUDIES) carried out for the Save programme of the European Commission. Chapters describe not only the main problems encountered such as the heat island and canyon effects, but also a range of design solutions that can be adopted both to improve the energy performance and indoor air quality of individual buildings and to look at aspects of urban design that can reduce these climatic effects. The book concludes with some examples of innovative urban bioclimatic buildings. The project was co-ordinated by Professor Mat Santamouris from the University of Athens who is also the editor of the book. Other contributions are from the University of Thessaloniki, Greece, ENTPE, Lyons, France and the University of Stuttgart, Germany. Available at.
Managing Indoor Environments and Energy in Buildings with Integrated Intelligent Systems
Following a rapid increase in the use of air conditioning in buildings of all types, the energy demand for powering such devices has become a significant cause for concern. Passive cooling is increasingly being thought of as the best alternative to air conditioning. This book offers the latest knowledge and techniques on passive cooling, enabling building professionals to understand the state of the art and employ relevant new strategies. With separate chapters on comfort, urban microclimate, solar control, ventilation, ground cooling and evaporative and radiative cooling, this authoritative text will also be invaluable for architects, engineers and students working on building physics and low-energy design. Advances in Passive Cooling is part of the BEST series, edited by Mat Santamouris. The aim of the series is to present the most current, high quality theoretical and application oriented material in the field of solar energy and energy efficient buildings. Leading international experts cover the strategies and technologies that form the basis of high-performance, sustainable buildings, crucial to enhancing our built and urban environment. Available at.
Energy consumption in buildings represents about 40% of the total annual energy usage in the EU. With greater awareness of the need to reduce energy consumption comes a growth of interest in passive cooling, particularly as an alternative to air-conditioning. Drawing extensively on information and results compiled under the SAVE European Research Programme, this book describes the fundamentals of passive cooling together with the principles and formulae necessary for its successful implementation. This publication will be of interest to building designers, building engineers including mechanical and electrical engineers, building scientists, especially those involved with building physics, and indoor air specialists. Available at.
A Handbook of Sustainable Building Design and Engineering: “An Integrated Approach to Energy, Health and Operational Performance”